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The Sky Is Falling

The stock market has fallen a lot and people are worried about all of the news items that have been popping up. Is the 9 year bull market over? The news items are scary - here are a few to summarize in case you get asked why markets are falling for

Accessing Leveraged Capital Markets – Part I

Issuing High Yield Bonds For levered companies that do not fit the investment grade bucket, there are still robust capital markets options available for debt issuance through the leveraged finance divisions of global investment banks. As discussed in other leveraged finance posts, a large suite of buyers invest in high yield bonds

Statistical Inference and Hypothesis Testing

Whenever we observe data, we are usually observing one or a few samples from a much larger population. For example, if we are looking at daily stock market returns for AAPL for last year, we are looking at only a small portion of the overall daily returns. More often than

Preferred Shares Primer

When investment bankers look at quick and dirty enterprise value calculations, they generally think: EV = Net Debt (Debt - Cash) + Equity In corporate finance theory, enterprise value includes all levels of the capital stack including preferred shares ('prefs"). Preferred shares are securities that are senior to common equity and generally pay

Multivariate Regression and Interpreting Regression Results

Simple linear regression (univariate regression) is an important tool for understanding relationships between quantitative data, but it has its limitations. One obvious deficiency is the constraint of one independent variable, limiting models to one factor, such as the effect of the systematic risk of a stock on its expected returns.