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Introduction to Fairness Opinions

What is a fairness opinion? A fairness opinion evaluates the financial fairness of the price an acquirer is offering a target during a transaction seeking to take control of the target (acquisition, takeover, merger, etc.). [i] A fairness opinion may also be used when a public company is divesting one of

Lithium Mining Primer

Overview Lithium has a wide variety of uses ranging from bipolar disorder treatments to manufacturing airplanes[i], however it is primarily used in energy storage (i.e. rechargeable batteries), lubricants, and glasses & ceramics[ii]. End Use Lithium Usage 2007 2017 Energy Storage 24% 59% Lubricants 14% 8% Glass 7% 5% Frits 9% 4% Air Conditioning 6% 3% CC Powder 3% 2% Cements/Adhesives 3% 1% Other 34% 18% [iii] Energy Storage/Batteries The percentage of lithium used for energy storage grew by 145% from 2007 to

Cobalt Mining Primer

Cobalt Overview Cobalt is a base metal with favorable properties and important uses. Cobalt’s key chemical properties are its high melting point (1,493 degrees Celsius/2,719 degrees Fahrenheit), its wear-resistance, and its electrical conductivity. Cobalt has a wide variety of uses including batteries, alloys, and catalysts.[i] Cobalt is found in low concentrations making

Proposed Oil Pipelines in Canada

Enbridge Line 3 Replacement Project Quick Facts/Overview Owner: Enbridge Throughput Capacity: 760,000 bbl./day[i] Start: Hardisty, Alberta End: Superior, Wisconsin Cost The project will cost $5.3B CAD in Canada and $2.9B USD in America.[ii] Existing Pipeline The Enbridge Line 3 began operating in 1968 running from Edmonton, Alberta through to Superior, Wisconsin with a capacity of